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B1.2 Notes and Active Links (Part 1)

Article ID: 348
Last updated: 22 Sep, 2015

B1.2  How our bodies defend themselves against infectious diseases
 

Candidates should be able to:
 

* relate the contribution of Semmelweis (Ignaz Semmelweis) in controlling   infection to solving modern problems with the spread of infection in hospitals

* explain how the treatment of disease has changed  as a result of increased understanding of the action of antibiotics and immunity

* evaluate the consequences of mutations of bacteria    and viruses in relation to epidemics and pandemics

* evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of being vaccinated against a particular disease.

* relate the contribution of Semmelweis in controlling infection to solving modern problems

* explain how the treatment of disease has changed as a result of increased understanding of the action of antibiotics and immunity

* evaluate the consequences of mutations of bacteria and viruses in relation to epidemics and pandemics

* evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of being vaccinated against a particular disease.


Excellent  videos :   and    https://youtu.be/KnM9s8VDIs8       and    https://youtu.be/TkQobVprl0E  

Candidates should know that:

(a) Microorganisms that cause infectious disease are called pathogens.

(b) Bacteria and viruses may reproduce rapidly inside the body and may produce poisons (toxins) that make us feel ill. Viruses damage the cells in which they reproduce

(c)  The body has different ways of protecting itself. against pathogens.
 

(d)  White blood cells help to defend against pathogens by:

  â–  ingesting pathogens
  â–  producing antibodies, which destroy particular bacteria or viruses
  â–  producing antitoxins, which counteract the toxins released by the pathogens.
 

(e)  The immune system of the body produces specificantibodies to kill a particular pathogen. This leads to immunity from that pathogen. In some cases, dead or inactivated pathogens stimulate antibody production. If a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen, the spread of the pathogen is very much reduced.

(f)   Semmelweis recognised the importance of hand-washing in the prevention of spreading some infectious diseases. By insisting that doctors washed their hands before examining patients, he greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital

Excellent  videos :   and    https://youtu.be/KnM9s8VDIs8       and    https://youtu.be/TkQobVprl0E  

Article ID: 348
Last updated: 22 Sep, 2015
Revision: 17
Views: 58
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B1.1 Notes and Active Links       B1.2 Notes and Active Links (Part 2)